b. Guide II
He divides nutrients towards three categories: things a great on their own, some thing an excellent in both on their own and also for its effects, and some thing an excellent only for the outcomes (357b-d). Socrates metropolises fairness regarding the family of something a great on their own and their consequences.
Glaucon renews Thrasymachus’ dispute so you can issue Socrates to protect justice by the alone as a given of what originates from they (358b ff.). Glaucon provides a presentation defending injustice: (i) fairness originates because a damage between weak folks who are afraid you to suffering injustice is actually worse than carrying it out (358e-359a); (ii) some one work justly as this is called for and you will inescapable, very fairness is useful only for the effects (tale of one’s band of Gyges’ predecessor, 359c-360d); (iii) the newest unfair individual for the reputation of justice are happier than the fresh just person into the history of injustice (360d-362c).
Adeimantus expands Glaucon’s coverage off injustice and assault on the justice of the asserting: the brand new reputation of justice surpasses justice in itself, therefore, the unfair person who could probably secure the reputation of being only was happier as compared to just individual; talk of several ways the fresh new unfair can obtain brand new profile getting justice (362d-366d).
Socrates are questioned to defend fairness for in itself, perhaps not toward reputation it permits to own (367b). The guy offers to look for justice around first and next to help you go-ahead of the analogy locate justice inside them (368c-369a). This method allows a crisper view into the concern out of if the only person is pleased compared to the unjust individual. Socrates initiate by the discussing the newest sources out-of political lifestyle and you can constructs a best urban area within the address one to matches simply first individual necessities (369b-372c). Socrates contends one individuals go into governmental existence while the are all maybe not self-enough by nature. For each people has actually particular natural abilities (370a) and you will doing precisely the unmarried employment a person is needless to say designed for, is one of effective way meet up with the requirements of all the the brand new residents (370c). Glaucon stuff you to Socrates’ urban area is actually easy and calls they “a city off pigs” (372d). Socrates makes reference to a local enabling to have privileges (“a great feverish city,” 372e-373e). Socrates points out your luxurious town will require an armed forces to guard the metropolis (373e). The new armed forces would-be comprising elite group soldiers, the newest guardians, exactly who, such as for example pet, need to be gentle so you can other people and you may severe to enemies (375c). The latest guardians have to be experienced carefully in order to complete their job off securing the fresh new city’s owners, statutes, and you will tradition well (376d). Poetry and tales must be censored to guarantee like a keen degree (377b). Poetry would be to: (i) expose the newest gods nearly as good and just because the reasons for a (379a); (ii) as the unchanging in form (380d); (iii) just like the beings whom abstain from lies and you can deceit (381e).
c. Guide III
Socrates goes on the newest governmental tips of the censorship from poetry: (iv) brand new underworld really should not be portrayed as the a detrimental lay therefore the guardians may not be as well scared of dying (386b); (v) the brand new heroes and you can gods should not be presented lamenting so as that the brand new guardians can develop bravery (387e); (vi) poetry is stop individuals from chuckling violently (388e); (vii) poetry is bring the brand new guardian’s sense of insights-telling but with the newest determination in order to rest when this is that lead toward a of your own town (389b); (viii) it should offer self-discipline and obedience (389c-d); (ix) it should perhaps not tend to be tales one to subscribe greed (390d); (x) it should maybe not were stories that contribute to hubris otherwise impiety (391a). Socrates moves on to talk about the way in which tales is always to learn (392d). He splits such as for example manners into simple narration (in 3rd individual) and you will imitative narration (within the basic people, 392d). To save the fresh guardians starting only work, Socrates contends that guardians could possibly get simulate simply what is actually appropriate for this (394e-395d). The only town is make it just settings and you will rhythms that fit the message of poetry invited on simply area (398b-399c). Socrates demonstrates to you how well art can lead to the formation of a good reputation and make some one very likely to go after its reasoning (400e-402c). Socrates turns into the real studies of your own guardians and you can claims which ought to include actual training you to prepares her or him to own conflict, a cautious diet plan, and you can activities you to donate to new reduction regarding medical professionals (403c-405b). Actual degree should be geared to work for the newest spirit in place of the body, given that body always positives when the spirit is actually a beneficial great condition, while the new spirit will not always benefit in the event the body’s into the a great standing (410b-c).